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Prior to this, between 19, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, and before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship between 19.
The city is part of the metroplex Bydgoszcz-Toruń, which totals over 850,000 inhabitants.
During 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally.
In 1871 the Province of Posen, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, became part of the newly formed German Empire.
In the mid-19th century, the arrival of the Prussian Eastern Railway (Preußische Ostbahn) contributed greatly to the development of Bromberg.
Due to its location between the Vistula and Oder rivers, and the water course of the Bydgoszcz Canal, the city forms part of a water system connected via the Noteć, Warta and Elbe with the Rhine and Rotterdam.
Bydgoszcz is an architecturally rich city, with neo-gothic, neo-baroque, neoclassicist, modernist and Art Nouveau styles present, for which it earned a nickname Little Berlin.
During the early Slavic times a fishing settlement called Bydgozcya ("Bydgostia" in Latin), became a stronghold on the Vistula trade routes.